In , J.C.R. Licklider published his groundbreaking paper called “Man- Computer Symbiosis.” Licklider was both a psychologist and a. J.C.R. Licklider (). Excerpts from “Man-computer Symbiosis”. IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, volume HFE-1, pp (now IEEE). J.C.R. Licklider may well be one of the most influential people in the history of In two extraordinary papers, Man-Computer Symbiosis () and The.

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The argument is introduced into the memory first, one character at a time, starting at a standard initial register. Throughout the period I examined, in short, my “thinking” time was devoted mainly to activities that were essentially clerical or mechanical: Parasitism is a non-mutual, often harmful, symbiotic relationship. Selfridge, “Pandemonium, a paradigm for learning,” Proc. Man-compurer could sketch out the format of a table roughly and let the computer shape it up with precision.

There is much to ponder about man-computer symbiosis. Architects and Builders of the Internet Cathedral. It will simulate the mechanisms and models, carry out the procedures, and display the oicklider to the operator. Licklider,” at URL https: The larva of the insect lives in the ovary of the fig tree, and there it gets its food.

To what extent would artificial intelligence be capable of rivaling human intellectual performance in the future? In another and more realistic sense, they store all the possible arguments in the framework structure of the memory.


The computers have been hand-fed reams of information by data entry personnel, and they use all this data to come up with a possible diagnosis. Recent work at the Haskins Laboratory has led to the development of a digital code, suitable for use by computing machines, that makes an automatic voice utter intelligible connected discourse [16]. Written by David Scott Brown.

Licklider begins a comparison between the so-called genotypic similarities between humans and computers, in the seventh passage of this part, with a definition of men as:.

Most of the remainder seems to be wrapped up in the problem of pattern recognition within the storage mechanism or medium. A multidisciplinary study group, examining future research and development problems of the Air Force, estimated that it would be before developments in artificial intelligence make it possible for machines alone to do much thinking or problem solving of military significance.

Strangely enough, the problem of language has been a puzzle for philosophers for centuries. Recent developments like the Apple Watch and research on implantable wireless devices Borton et al.

J.C.R. Licklider (1915-1990)

True, they usually know something about directions in which to travel or lines along which to work, but few start out with precisely formulated itineraries.

Views Read Edit View history. To go a step up the scale of vocabulary size, we may say that an automatic recognizer of clearly spoken alpha-numerical characters can almost surely be developed now on the basis of existing knowledge. At the end of the argument is a special “end-of-argument” marker. However, man-clmputer are several organizations that would happily undertake to develop an automatic recognize for such a vocabulary on a five-year basis. They symbioosis stipulate that the speech be clear speech, dictation style, without unusual accent.


The man man-computre be able to present a symhiosis to the computer, in a rough but rapid fashion, by drawing a graph. How desirable and how feasible is speech communication between human operators and computing machines? Then go to the second register, and pick up the address of the third, etc. Licklider and Welden Clark August Perhaps the greater danger is the total dependency of a person on its computing machine.

He could even define new symbols, as Gilmore and Savell [14] have done at the Lincoln Laboratory, and present them directly to the computer. Will a person in a symbiotic relationship with a computing machine ever consider removing man-comphter device or turning it off?

The Matrix: J.C.R. Licklider

You get a sheet of paper 20 feet long, full symbiosls numbers that, instead of providing a final solution, only suggest a tactic that should be explored by simulation. There would be only a confusion of uninterpretable clutter if all the information were presented on one display to all of them.

Engineers who work and live with computers take a conservative attitude toward the desirability. The differences in speed and in language, of course, pose difficulties that must be overcome.