Mano Dura (Iron Fist) and the Ley Antimaras (Anti-Gang Law). Honduras. Social violence, (in)security, and security policies in Honduras and Central. America. Con la aprobación de la Ley Antimaras se sanciona con una pena de un fuerte lo que llevaba el Estado de Honduras, por lo que empezaron. cargo de las Fuerzas. Armadas. Reforma constitucional. Nueva Ley. Orgánica de la. Policía. Ley anti-maras. Reforma del. Código Penal. Crisis y reorganización.

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Hide Footnote Firms in the Guatemala City municipal market have established regular payment systems to gangs to protect themselves from more predatory rivals. Organized crime and the delinquency of gangs constantly hit decent citizens, who are the immense majority, and this is an attack against the stability of the country Sacaas quoted in Peetz The first one stated they were not seeking to be acquitted of the charges against them, asked to be treated humanely, and requested support for their reintegration in civilian life through jobs and opportunities to study.

Hide Footnote Taxi drivers in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, are favoured extortion targets, and are forced to pay the gangs who control the areas where their pick-up stations are located: In fact, the Iron Fist policies have turned out to be highly inconsistent, to institutionalize the maras in El Antimaaras, and to thereby contribute to the gang problem, rather than to solve it Hondkras ; Hume ; Cruz He had denied having initiated dialogue with the gangs when the process was exposed, but six months later acknowledged his participation.

The following statement of President Maduro substantiates this: Emotional satisfaction — gaining status, respect and a strong sense of collective identity — has always been integral to the attractions of gang life, and has played a far more important role in the rise and resilience of gangs than the illicit accumulation of wealth.

Notwithstanding various proposals in the Congress atimaras Guatemala, anti-gang legislation was never passed Peetz In addition, a substantial atnimaras of resources for prevention and rehabilitation initiatives, and for addressing the social tensions that make the resort to gangs and crime attractive, may explain why the Guatemalan state has not been able to contain the violence until now Brands Similar to Maduro, Lobo relied on the military and the police Bosworth As the ,ey important crime and revenue-raising business of the marasextortion is fundamental to understanding their resilience as well as the fear they have spread in their host societies.

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The succession of unsuccessful punitive measures is now coming under closer scrutiny across the Northern Triangle.

Originally published in El Pulso. Executive Summary Born in the aftermath of civil war and boosted by mass deportations from the U.

El déjà-vu de las políticas de seguridad en Honduras

Faith-based organisations are well-positioned to assist as they enjoy public trust, while religious conversion has become an accepted antumaras for gang members to calmarse — mara lexicon for ceasing gang activities.

Some observers have hailed the creation of outreach centres in high-risk communities in Honduras [ A momentous step by the gangs, above all in El Salvador, would be to guarantee free movement of all citizens through gang-controlled territories, as well as a restoration of the veto on violence and recruitment in schools.

Real per capita income declined by 25 antinaras cent during the s, 56 per cent fell below the poverty line and yearly inflation reached 25 per cent by the end of the decade.

Central American gangs are responsible for brutal acts of violence, abuse of women and forced displacement of thousands.

This question is even more pressing when political motivations behind certain portrayals blur the lines between politicization and securitization. Desktop version Mobile version.

El déjà-vu de las políticas de seguridad en Honduras | Crisis Group

In the post-conflict contexts of the NTCA, where the public discourse has been dominated by the portrayal of maras as public enemies, support for the repression or even elimination of gang members is high. The Bank has argued this is partly due to a statistical anomaly. A total of transportation workers were killed between and in El Salvador. A total of transportation workers were killed between and in El Salvador, where the maras brought public transport to a standstill in and again in Homicide levels started to escalate to pre-truce levels, reaching an unprecedented high in In The Construction of the Maras: However, the initiating factor of the transposition of U.

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Mark your space, your territory, become famous. In contrast to the punitive attitude of the Salvadoran and Honduran anti-gang policies, Guatemalan measures were not as drastic but showed a similar tendency Brands It is unclear why the B and the MS eventually fell out.

4. Case studies

Indeed, Ribando Seelke A programa hondurad for its part joins together members of various clicas in specific money-making crimes, while those in charge of killings are known as sicarios hit-men or gatilleros trigger-pullers. Hide Footnote Instead, they looked upon the gangs solely as a security issue requiring ever more draconian responses. At the lowest rungs of the ladder, so-called paros or banderas flags act as ohnduras, collectors of extortion money, gun-runners, spies and recruitment officers.

Hide Footnote In poor areas of Guatemala City, gang members have displaced families and drug traffickers have temporarily used their homes as warehouses.

During the truce, Salvadoran gangs declared schools as safe zones and participated in local initiatives to build peace. In Guatemala, an estimated 80 per cent of extortions are commanded from prison.

Hide Footnote The maras that emerged were better organised, engaged in more violent crimes, used heavier weapons and proved more alluring than the many smaller pre-existing street gangs, or pandillas. Prosecutors often manipulated or over-interpreted existing legal norms in order to be able to justify the detentions — a commonly used charge was drug possession for personal consumption Berlin et al.

Hide Footnote Other non-gang criminal groups in Guatemala, popularly known as paisasare reportedly seeking to grab greater shares of the extortion market. In El Salvador, local transport businesses inducted the emerging neighbourhood gangs of the antkmaras s into extortion rackets, paying them to intimidate rival firms or carry out targeted killings. Rewriting and changing the constitution became a pitfall for Zelaya in June when he was forced into exile and Roberto Micheletti became de facto president until elections were held later that year.