Ibn Rushd Fi Kitab Fasl Al-Maqal Wa-Taqrir Ma Bayna Al-Shari Ah Wa-Al-Hikmah Min Al-Ittisal, Ahamm Al-Mawdu at Fi Al-Falsafah Wa-Al-Fiqh Wa-Al-Manhaj. the content of Fasl al-Maqal, and then examine what Ibn Rushd in fact does in Kitab Fasl al-Maqal wa Taqrlr ma bayn al-Shart’ah wa al-Hikmah min at-Ittisal. Kitab fasl al-maqal, with its appendix (Damima) and translation is based on the Arabic text in Ibn Rushd (Averroes) Kitab fasl al-maqal, ed.

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Here again we must be circumspect in giving allegorical interpretations, i. But in truth it is they who are the unbelievers and in error! The result is unbelief in learners and teachers. For this manner of harm which arises owing to them is something that is attached to them by accident, not by essence; and when a thing is beneficial by its nature and essence, it ought not to be shunned because of something harmful contained in it by accident. We have devoted a separate essay to this question, impelled by one of our friends.

The reason for that [in the case of the latter] is that allegorical interpretation comprises two things, rejection of the apparent meaning and affirmation of the allegorical one; so that if the apparent meaning is rejected in the mind of someone who can only grasp apparent meanings, without the allegorical meaning being affirmed in his mind, the result is unbelief, if it [the text in question] concerns the principles of religion.


If it were not for the publicity given kitav the matter and to these questions which we have discussed, we should not have permitted ourselves to write a word on the subject; and we should not have had to make excuses for doing so to the interpretative scholars, because the proper place to discuss these questions is in demonstrative books.

Thus the difficulty is resolved, and we do no, have to admit that if there occurs no change, i. This is no more heretical in the one case than in the other. Now the methods available to men of [arriving at] judgments are three: Thus it is clear that litab this last being bears a resemblance both to [1] the being which is really generated a nd to [2] the pre-eternal Being.

In these kiitab it is preferable to deny the existence of symbolization.

If it is unmentioned there is no contradiction, and it is in the same case as an act whose category is unmentioned, so that the lawyer has to infer it by reasoning from Scripture. It is our desire to devote our time to this object and achieve it effectively, and if God grants us a respite of life we shall work steadily towards it in so far as this is made possible for us; and it may be that that work will serve as a starting point for our successors.

So whoever wishes to remove this heresy from religion should direct his attention to the precious Book, and glean from it the indications present [in it] concerning everything in turn that it obliges us to believe, arid exercise his judgment in looking at its apparent meaning as well as he is able, without interpreting any of it allegorically, except where the allegorical meaning is apparent in itself, i.


That is why we hold that, for anyone whose duty it is to believe in the apparent meaning, allegorical interpretation is unbelief, because it leads to unbelief. Do you want God and His Prophet to be accused of lying? In sum, it can hardly be conceived that the knowledge of a thing before it exists can be identical with the knowledge of it after it exists. But what calls even more strongly for comparison with the art of mathematics in this respect is the art of the principles of law; and the study of law itself was completed only over a long period of time.

Some features of WorldCat will not be available. Moreover, this accidental effect of this art is a thing which may also occur accidentally from the other arts.

But by expressing those false beliefs to the masses they have been a cause of perdition to the masses and themselves, in this world and the next. However, when allegorical interpretations of these two classes [of texts] [iii and iv] are declared openly, they give birth to strange beliefs, remote from the apparent meaning of Scripture; and sometimes these become widespread, until they are denied by the masses.

It seems that those who disagree on the interpretation of these difficult questions earn merit if they are in the right and will be excused [by God] if they are in error.

The purpose of Scripture is to teach true science and right practice; and teaching is of two classes, [of] concepts and [of] judgments, as the logicians have shown. Cancel Forgot your password? In general, error about Scripture is of two types: It may be asked: Your Web browser is not enabled for JavaScript. Thus one of two alternatives is necessary: The duty of the elite here is to apply such interpretation; while the duty of the masses is to take them in their apparent meaning in both respects, i.

Therefore It does not change when they change.

The [full] solution of this difficulty would call for a lengthy discourse; but here we shall only go into the decisive point of the solution. You ought to know that the purpose of Scripture is simply to teach true science and right practice.

The position clearly is that this matter belongs to the class [3] about which there is disagreement. Abu Hamid in his book entitled The disintegration wanted to resolve this difficulty in a way which carries no conviction. But it is recorded in Tradition that many of the first believers used to hold that Scripture has both an apparent and an inner meaning, and that the inner meaning al-maqap not to be learned by anyone who is not a man of learning in this field and who is incapable of understanding it.

The fourth [class] occurs where the premisses are based on accepted ideas or opinions, without being accidentally certain, and where the conclusions are symbols for what it was intended to conclude.


Formats and Editions of Kitāb fasl al-maqāl []

Well, do you think that people in this condition will do any of the things which are useful for preserving health and curing disease, or that this man who has persuaded them to reject what they formerly believed in will now be able to use those [things] with them, I mean for preserving health?

The relation between the aim of these people and the aim of the Legislator [can be fassl by] a parable, of a man who goes to a skilful doctor. From this al-masal is evident that the study of the books of the ancients is obligatory by Law, since their aim kitb purpose in their books is just the purpose to which the Law has urged us, and that whoever forbids the study of them to anyone who is fit to study them, i.

But it is now clear from what we have said that al-mzqal is not the case. La-maqal if the apparent meaning of Scripture is searched, it will be evident from the verses which give us information about the bringing into existence of the world that its form really is originated, but that being itself and time extend continuously at both extremes, i. This is the reason why Scripture is divided into apparent and inner meanings: The Law, then, has urged us to have demonstrative knowledge of God the Exalted and all the beings of His creation.

For it can be said to them: Printed for the Trustees of the “E. Remember me on this computer. This is self-evident to any fair minded person.

For demonstration compels the conclusion that He knows things, because their issuing from Him is solely due to His knowing; it is not due to His being merely Existent or Existent with a certain attribute, but to His knowing, as the Exalted has said: So if such is the case, and everything that is required in the study of the subject of intellectual syllogisms has already been examined in the most perfect manner by the ancients, presumably we ought to lay hands on their wl-maqal in order to study what they said about that subject; and if it is all correct we should accept it from them, while if there is anything incorrect in it, we should draw fsal to that.

Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions. And logic must be learned from the ancient masters, regardless of the fact that they were not Muslims. Thus to the class [of people] who notice this much, these sayings ought to al-kaqal brought down to that one of those four modes of existence which most nearly resembles [the essential mode]. The precious Book has al-,aqal us to seek it by acts conformable to the Law, in several verses.