Psychology From an Empirical Standpoint · Franz Brentano. Routledge () Brentano and Wundt: Empirical and Experimental Bradford. Franz Brentano (). Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint. I. The Concept and Purpose of Psychology. Source: Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint. This standpoint is clearly mirrored in his empirical approach to psychology. It is noteworthy.

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Playing and Reality D. Similarly, in their opinion, natural science is to be defined as the science of physical phenomena, rather than as the science of bodies. If someone rejects the existence of a substance, he must assume that such a continuity does not require a substantial bearer.

It is because there has been no systematic application of psychological principles in the political field until now, and even more because the guardians of the people have been, almost without exception, completely ignorant of these principles, that we can assert along with Plato and with epirical contemporary thinkers that, no matter how much fame individuals have attained, no truly great statesman has yet appeared in history.

They were incomplete perhaps, but nonetheless served to demonstrate that only from physiology is a re-birth of medicine to be expected. However, the philosopher Roger Scrutonwriting in Sexual Emoiricaldescribes the intentionality passage of Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint as both obscure and hesitant.

The words “phenomenon” or “appearance” are often used in opposition to “things which really and truly exist. These very simple observations can easily convince anyone of the great theoretical significance of psychological knowledge. Psychology from an Empirical Stanpoint is Brentano’s best-known book, [4] and much has been written about its “intentionality passage”, quoted above.

Even though Brentano worked on problems in metaphysics and ontology throughout his life, he hardly published on these topics during his lifetime. Academic Tools How to cite this entry.

Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint – Wikipedia

After the fourth phase, a new period begins with a creative phase of renewal. One-Dimensional Man Herbert Marcuse. It shows that the results of our investigation are dependent on fewer presuppositions, and thus lends greater certainty to our convictions.

Verlag von Franz Kirchheim, The two other categories, judgments and phenomena of love and hate, are based on presentations. Like my thinking about the city of Paris, all these acts are intentionally directed towards an object, with the difference, however, that their objects do not really exist. Aristoteles Lehre vom Ursprung des menschlichen GeistesLeipzig: Print Hardcover and Paperback.


Hence, even though the really essential analogy is missing, the similarity to old age in external appearance is undeniable. When we seem to have more than one mental act at a time, like when we hear a melody while tasting a sip of red wine and enjoying the beautiful view from the window, all these mental phenomena melt into one, they become moments or, to stick with Brentano’s terminology, divisives of a collective.

Brentano’s Metaphysics Even though Brentano worked on problems in metaphysics and ontology throughout his life, he hardly published on these topics during his lifetime.

Das GenieLeipzig: In respect to belief, we would inquire what we believe directly; according to what laws one belief produces another; and what are the laws in virtue of which one thing is taken, rightly or erroneously, as evidence for another thing.

Brentano’s views on the unity of consciousness entail that inner observation, as explained above, is strictly impossible, i. Hence, he does adopt the form of psychologism Husserl seems to have had in mind in the Prolegomena to his Logical Investigationswhere he defines logical psychologism as a position according to which: For a detailed history of Brentano’s Nachlasscf.

Moran, Dermot,Introduction to PhenomenologyLondon: They are true in themselves. Franz Clemens Brentano — is mainly known for his work in philosophy of psychology, especially for having introduced the notion of intentionality to contemporary philosophy.

The laws of gravitation, of sound, of light and electricity stanndpoint along with the phenomena for which experience has established them. We are more eager to know the order and origin of our own solar system than that of some more remote group of heavenly bodies.

Brentano’s Works in 19th Century Philosophy Brentano: Mathematics, Experience, and Laboratories: Related Entries Brentano, Franz: A person a is empigical than another person bfor example, only if both a and b exist and a is, in fact, taller than b. Who could deny, then, that this constitutes a great advantage of psychology over the natural sciences?

Psychology from An Empirical Standpoint : Franz Brentano :

At the same time, and in quite an analogous manner, the concept of life was also narrowed, or, if not this concept – for scientists psycjology ordinarily use this term in its broad original sense – at standpolnt the concept of the soul. If someone wanted to compare the relative value of the scientific field which we have just described with that of the natural sciences, using as a measuring stick only and exclusively the interest aroused at the present time by these two types of investigations, psychology would undoubtedly be overshadowed.


The first volume was published ina second volume The Classification of Mental Bentano followed inand fragments of the third volume Sensory and Noetic Consciousness were published posthumously by Oskar Kraus in The first is a creative phase of renewal and ascending development; the other three are phases of decline, dominated by a turn towards practical interests, by scepticism, and finally by mysticism.

Biography Wundt Dilthey Husserl Nietzsche. Thus, when I think about the city of Paris, I am actually thinking of a mental object that is part of my act of thinking, and not about the actual city. Husserl, Edmund,Logical Investigationstrans. Consequently, no one can really doubt that a mental state which he perceives in himself exists, and that it exists just as he perceives it.

Franz Brentano

Aristotle called politics the master art to which all others serve as subsidiaries. The phenomena of light, sound, heat, spatial location and locomotion which he studies are not things which really and truly exist. They are, however, numerous and important enough for there to be a special field of study devoted to them.

Throughout his life he influenced a great number of students, many of who became important philosophers and psychologists in their own rights, such as Edmund Husserl, Alexius Meinong, Christian von Ehrenfels, Anton Marty, Carl Stumpf, Kasimir Twardowski, as well as Sigmund Freud. In general, according to Mill, psychology investigates the laws which govern the succession of our mental states, i. He made important contributions to many fields in philosophy, especially to metaphysics and ontology, ethics, logic, the history of philosophy, and philosophical theology.

The notion of intentionality played a central role also in Husserlian phenomenology. How many evils could be remedied, both on the individual and social level, by the correct psychological diagnosis, or by knowledge of the laws according to which a mental state can be modified!

The same thing is true of psychology. In recent years an increasing number of philosophers from different fields have rediscovered and elaborated on different themes from Brentano’s philosophy.

What is meant by “science of mental phenomena” or “science of physical phenomena”?