Leon Festinger and James Carlsmith proposed the term cognitive dissonance which is Every individual has his or her Festinger, L. and Carlsmith, J. M. ( ). The following article by Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith is the classic study on Reprinted from Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, , 58, . Forced compliance theory is a paradigm that is closely related to cognitive dissonance theory. Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith () conducted an experiment entitled “Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance”. This study.

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He found, rather, that a large reward produced less subsequent opinion change than did a smaller reward. There is another possible way, however.

Cognitive dissonance

They were asked to rate how interesting they had found the discussion, and how interesting they had found the people involved in it. Views Read Edit View history.

The fee was paid and a receipt was signed by the subject. Back to Overview “Social Psychology Experiments”. These Ss were hired for one dollar to tell a waiting S that tasks, which were really rather dull and boring, were interesting, enjoyab1e, fwstinger lots of fun.

The E then removed the tray and spools and placed in front of the S a board containing 48 square pegs. Notice that dissonance theory 195 not state that these modes of dissonance reduction will actually work, only that individuals who are in a state of cognitive dissonance will take steps to reduce the festknger of their dissonance. Green York University, Toronto, Ontario. All S s, without exception, were quite willing to return the money.

However, this mode of dissonance reduction frequently presents problems festingr people, as it is often difficult for people to change well-learned behavioral responses e. We mentioned in the introduction that Janis and King ; in explaining their findings, proposed an explanation in terms of the self-convincing effect of mental rehearsal [p. Most of our subjects tell us afterward that they found it quite interesting You get a chance to see how you react to the tasks and so forth.


The experimented stressed that acceptance would oblige and might lead to future involvements in experiments if the associate was again unavailable. Carslmith in the control group were simply given one of the products. Putting these 11 in exception, the 60 remaining responses are the following:.

It has the advantage of being testable by scientific means i. December Learn how and when to remove this template message.

In the ‘severe embarrassment’ condition, they had to read aloud obscene words and a very explicit sexual passage. Festinger and Carlsmith – cognitive dissonanceCognitive consequences of Forced Compliance. Students were urged to cooperate in these interviews by being completely and honest.

Generally speaking, the social comparison theory explains how individuals evaluate their opinion and desires by comparing themselves to others. The said group served as the control group of the experiment. This question is less directly related to the dissonance that was experimentally created for the S s. The results from this question are shown in the last row of Table 1.

Check out our quiz-page with tests about: The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4. Two derivations from this theory are tested here.

While the S was working on these tasks the E sat, with a stop watch in his hand, busily making notations on a sheet of paper.

Festinger & Carlsmith Cognitive dissonance consequences of forced compliance

Acquire new information that outweighs the dissonant beliefs. This question was included because there was a chance that differences might emerge. He introduced the girl and the S to one another saying that the S had just finished the experiment and would tell her something about it. Thus, if the overt behavior was brought about by, say, offers of reward or threats of punishment, the magnitude of dissonance is maximal if these promised rewards or threatened punishments were just barely sufficient to induce the person to say “not X.


As the E and the S started to walk to the office where the interviewer was, the E said: Cognitive dissonance is one form of social comparison. The students were asked to perform a tedious task involving using one hand to turn small spools a quarter clockwise turn.

In other words, he could tell himself that a short life filled with smoking and sensual pleasures is better than a long life devoid of such joys.

Highly anxious people are more likely to do so.

Forced compliance theory

Actually, the result, as may be seen in the table, are in exactly the same direction, and the magnitude of the mean differences is fully as large as on festinyer first question. The experimenter explained that the experiment itself usually took a little over an hour to conduct but was scheduled for two hours giving some people from Introductory Psychology an opportunity to interview some of the participants afterwards.

To reduce this dissonance, we are motivated to try to think that the task turned out well. This was rated in the same way 19599 for the content before the remark.