Life Cycle: Eriosoma lanigerum is an exotic species in the Middle East. In North America its primary host is the American elm tree (Ulmus. back to HYPP Zoology home page. Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) Schizoneura lanigerum. Insecta, Homoptera, Pemphigidae. woolly apple aphid. Compiled by Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University. Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) Homoptera: Eriosomatidae.
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Therefore, to detect the main driving variables that explain the dynamics of WAA, a multilateral approach that includes both biotic and climatic data would be more appropriate than trying to separate the contribution of each individual factor. Eriosoma lanigerumthe woolly apple aphidwoolly aphid or American blight is an aphid in the superfamily Aphidoidea in the order Hemiptera. Bulletin of Entomological Research 99 1 During their studies between wriosomadifferent morphs of Eriosoma lanigerum were observed on apple trees, which were studied in more detail in and ,anigerum micrographs below show first a dorsal view ofan Eriosoma lanigerum adult aptera in alcohol and second a closer view of wax glands on the head.
Feeding resulted in greater shoot and root dry weights and a disruption in nutrient balance, with reduced foliar nitrogen and phosphorous compared to control trees Weber and Brown, These observations reinforce the importance of promoting earwigs early in the season to maintain low levels of AI until the levels of parasitism by A.
EPPO Global Database
Milder winters have promoted overwintering survival on the aerial parts of the tree. Where sexual reproduction occurs they will also overwinter as eggs and this occurs when elms are prevalent with the eggs being laid into crevices in the bark.
These observations are consistent with the hypothesis mentioned above, that there is not a clear relationship between canopy and root colonies. Control was disrupted in the late s when widespread use of DDT a persistant organochlorine insecticide for codling moth control virtually eliminated the parasite from orchards.
Eriosoma lanigerum – Bugwoodwiki
Tukey-HSD tests were used to compare means. Bulletin of Entomological Research 95 3 Data sheets on quarantime organisms. The sexuales were apterous, had degenerate mouthparts and produced non-viable eggs. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Tropical Pest Management, 26 1: The gene Er3, from Aotea an accession classified as Malus sieboldiiis a new major gene for woolly apple aphid resistance.
The sex ratio is strongly male-biased when only small hosts are available for parasitization, and strongly female biased when only large hosts are available. Aphelinus malicrawler, European earwig, Forficula auriculariamultivariate analysis, winter survival.
Support Center Support Center. Peak numbers of embryos were also recorded in the final two developmental stages fourth instar and adults during spring. Distribution Maps of Pests.
The same observation was made by Beers et al.
Yield reduction in apple by edaphic woolly apple aphid Homoptera: Aphids on the World’s Crops. Harmonia axyridis is one of the important predatory insects for controlling woolly apple aphid in apple orchards in China.
Woolly aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann)) – Apple Best Practice Guide
Female parasitoids are generally larger than males, emerge from larger mummies and take about half a day longer to complete development. Furthermore, populations collected from geographically distant regions were very closely related, which can partly be explained by the fact that agricultural practices were responsible for dissemination of populations from a common ancestor to geographically distant areas.
A very low percentage of the current apple acreage is planted on resistant rootstocks, nor are such rootstocks used for new plantings.
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence http: Variable loadings represented in the plane defined by the first two principal components. The honeydew can also create unpleasant conditions for orchard workers to work in due to high levels of sticky honeydew excreted.
No insecticides were applied for woolly aphid control. The principal natural enemy that achieved this was the parasitoid Aphelinus maliassisted by predators whose contribution remained obscure, including the brown lacewing Micromus tasmaniae and the European earwig Forficula auricularia. Ulmaceae is the primary host and apple the secondary one; in the absence of the primary host it develops on apple throughout the year.
Preliminary models to predict canopy infestations were developed. Feeding on elm leaves and buds in spring cause the leaves to curl into closed, stunted clusters or rosettes at the twig tips. Multivariate projection methods were applied to simultaneously analyze biotic and abiotic variables. Aphelinidaeto common pesticides used in apple orchards in Israel. Weber and Brown reported that aphids can sometimes infest the cores of some cultivars.
The first-instar apterae are the forms important in dispersion.
Markers for each of the genes were validated for their usefulness for marker-assisted selection in separate populations. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. Forficulidae and spiders Araneae are reported to be WAA predators; of these, earwigs are cited lanigerim the most important Mueller et al.
Woolly Apple Aphid
Low temperatures and parasites were the major factors that brought about a reduction in the amount of downward movement. Eriosomatidae and its parasitoid Aphelinus mali Haldeman Hymenoptera: In North America aphids of the Eriosoma lanigerum group which includes several species eeriosoma to Eriosoma lanigerumin USA induce leaf-rosette galls on American elm Ulmus americana. Heavy infestations may result in the formation of laanigerum and wounds that permit the entry of the fungi Nectria ditissima and N.
Banding of trunks with granules of these insecticides has also been useful in decreasing infestations, by checking the movement of first-instar nymphs that migrate between aerial and subterranean habitats on apple Thakur and Dogra,