Ebers–Moll model for an NPN transistor. mode are well modeled by an approximation to the Ebers–Moll model. Ebers and Moll created a model between the current and voltages in the transistor terminals. This model is knowned as the Ebers Moll model. The Ebers-Moll model is an ideal model for a bipolar transistor, which can be used, in the forward active mode of.

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BJTs are manufactured in two types, NPN and PNP, and are available as individual components, or fabricated in integrated circuitsoften in large numbers. The unapproximated Ebers—Moll equations used to describe the three currents in any operating region are given below. The thermal runaway process associated with secondary breakdown, once triggered, occurs almost instantly and may catastrophically damage the transistor package.

It will be obvious that why two diodes connected back to back will not function as a transistor from the following discussion, as dependent current source term will be missing which is responsible for all the interesting properties of transistor. However, because base charge is not a signal that is visible at the terminals, the current- and voltage-control views are generally used in circuit design and analysis.

The forward current entering the base is sweeped across into collector by the electric filed generated by the reverse bias voltage applied across the base collector junction. Consider two diodes connected back to back in the configuration shown below.


It is typically the emitter efficiency, which limits the current gain in transistors made of silicon or germanium. The minority carrier lifetime in the base is 10 ns. The BJT also makes a good amplifier, since it can multiply a weak input signal to about times its original strength.

Bipolar junction transistor – Wikipedia

These equations are based on the transport model for a bipolar junction transistor. It is obvious that this is not the case with the transistor in active region because of the internal design of transistor.

The base internal current is mainly by diffusion see Fick’s law and. The base is physically located between the emitter and the collector and is made from lightly doped, high-resistivity material.

Compact Models of Bipolar Junction Transistors, pp.

Bipolar junction transistor

The BJT is also the choice for demanding analog circuits, especially for very-high-frequency applications, such as radio-frequency circuits for wireless systems.

An increase in the collector—base voltage, for example, causes a greater reverse bias across the collector—base junction, increasing the collector—base depletion region width, and decreasing the width of the base. This effect can be used to amplify the input voltage or current.

Capacitor types Ceramic resonator Crystal oscillator Inductor Parametron Relay reed relay mercury switch. The lack of symmetry is primarily due to the doping ratios of the emitter and the collector.

This section may be too technical for most readers to understand. When the base—collector voltage reaches a certain device-specific value, the lf depletion region boundary meets the base—emitter depletion region boundary.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The minority-carrier distribution in the quasi-neutral regions of the bipolar transistor, as shown in Figure 5.


The collector—base junction is reverse biased in normal operation. Potentiometer digital Variable capacitor Varicap. Moll introduced their mathematical model of transistor currents: Typically, the emitter region is heavily doped compared to the other two layers, whereas the majority charge carrier concentrations in base ebsrs collector layers are about the same collector doping is typically ten times lighter than base doping [2]. A typical current gain for a silicon bipolar transistor is 50 – The heavy doping of the emitter region and light doping of the base region causes many more electrons to be injected from the emitter into the base than holes to be injected from the transistlr into the emitter.

Solid State Physics 1st ed.

Ebers-moll model of transistor

Retrieved from ” https: Physics and Technology of Heterojunction Devices. This ratio usually has a value close to unity; between 0. In a PNP transistor, the emitter—base region is forward biased, so holes are injected into the base as minority carriers. Both types of BJT function by letting a small current input to the base control an amplified output from the collector. As shown, the h-parameters have lower-case subscripts and hence signify AC conditions or analyses.

For a diode with voltage V applied between its terminals, the current flowing through the junction in terms of applied voltage off its terminals is given by.