Donor challenge: Your generous donation will be matched 2-to-1 right now. Your $5 becomes $15! Dear Internet Archive Supporter,. I ask only. The Dzongkha Development Commission is very pleased to present the first Dzongkha grammar with such a wide scope, and the Commission feels indebted to. Dzongkha, or Bhutanese is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by over half a million people in Bhutan; it is the sole official and national.

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In the south, Tshangla Lhop ‘southerners’. To express feelings, emotions and thoughts the tense of experienced perceptions can, in the interrogative, gtammar a second person subject.

Dzongkha Grammar

Language map of Bhutan 33 Chapter Two: So, you are a thief. According to me, you haven’t understood. English speakers can learn to pronounce this vowel vowel sound in Dutch kaas.

In the east, the Kurichu forms the boundary between the Khengkha and Tshangla speaking areas. I don’t need your money.

In posing a question about the second person, e. Strictly speaking, the steady state present is not a present tense but a tenseless verb form which also encompasses present time. Whereas the factual present expresses a fact which obtains in present time, the progressive expresses an activity in progress.

I just don’t know what’s the matter.

I money lose-[pf]-[ip] I lost my money. Grammmar book has been written both dzlngkha the linguist and the layman. I girl-that with converse perform-[pg] kho ‘nammesarne se: Cho-ca-nga-ca-kha is more conservative in its pro- nunciation of many words than Dzongkha, e. In the south the Kurtop speaking area begins at the 4b. Observe that in all the above examples, where the tense of perceived phenomena is used to express an 98 r.: Dzongkha also Nyinup Bta 5.

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These are II, HIfig, p, k and sh. MeceDhimal Nepali: By contrast, the verb p:! Perfective aspect and auxiliaries expressing Aktionsart The perfective aspect expresses a past tense activity viewed as completed or a past tense event or transition the result of which has or had been attained. Gramamr Chinese Tibetan designation of ‘3!

After the speaker has asked for his book back, the person who had misplaced it, looked for the book and, after finally having found it, shows up with the book. The most elderly Lhokpu generation recalls the advent of the first Nepalese immigrants to the area.

He sits there mi-thop-ba G 0 aniya minu without a place ggammar go.

Dzongkha Grammar : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming : Internet Archive

Other languages of the Dzongkha group military elite, educated nobility, government and adminis- tration is firmly rooted in Bhutanese history at least as far 3a. Such constructions with the infinitive in combination with The following sentence illustrates a special usage of the auxiliaries are dealt with in Chapter Seven. The book is a descriptive grammar of modem Dzongkha, the living language as it is spoken in the King- No part of this book may be reproduced dom of Bhutan, not a normative grammar emulating Cho- without prior consent in writing from the ke, the ancient liturgical language.

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Wang- nate from Sikkim. The versity for his valuable counsel. In sentence 45the speaker reports on a claim made by the subject at some point in the past, although the speaker cannot now vouch that the subject still holds to this claim.

Transliteration is an unambiguous rendering of the indigenous orthography of Dzongkha words in the Ro- man alphabet. The moment at which the subject of sentence 15 sat down and commenced his eavesdropping was an event which went unobserved by the speaker. The initial dr is followed by the low register tone. Everything has been main verb in questions which are addressed to the second used up.

However, note the use of the experienced past in yi in the following sentences. Where be – Lham ya? ChOdro can really tell witty jokes. Only the second stem in the reduplication is an inflected form, and the adjectival form thus derived may be used adnominally, e. Similarly, the speaker in 40 does not tell us what he does not know, viz.

JI New Dzongkha Grammar, written in mission.