Find the most up-to-date version of DOE TIC at Engineering DOE-TIC (). Uploaded by fogdart. manual .. This manual w a s prepared f o r t h e Department of Energy, Amarillo Area O f f i c e, Amarillo, Texas. DOE/TIC .. Department of Energy Albuquerque Operations Amarillo Area Office Facilities and The AE will be given guidance as required by DOE.

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The method addresses cratering and soil ejecta effects as well as primary fragmentation from the munition. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet.

The theory used in BEM is discussed. For most unexploded ordnance the fragmentation range is much larger than the inhabited building distance IBD for overpressure. If X is less than Y, a crater will be formed. To be consistent with the primary fragment calculations, the maximum range of the soil ejecta should be used.

Witness screens are used between sandbags to determine if fragments penetrate the sandbag layer and overpressure and noise measurements are taken at several distances from the center of the detonation.

The input required for the software is detailed and two example problems are given. The results from the BEM software are compared to the results obtained by applying the method by hand. The soil slows down the fragments and, in some cases, may stop the fragments completely.

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Therefore, as a conservative dod, all of the soil is assumed to have a density of one-half its undisturbed density for the purposes of calculating the drag coefficient on the fragment velocity. Which suggests that for at least a portion of the burial depth the fragment is travelling through undisturbed soil. Otherwise, the fragment velocity as it exits the soil is calculated using equation 6. There is no added benefit to burying the munition any deeper until reaching the depth at which a camouflet is formed.

The results from the BEM software for mitigation of primary fragments by tamped earth are compared to 1126 results of the sandbag tests xoe to date. Also, BEM will never result in a zero fragment velocity and fragment range.


The buried explosion module BEM is a program designed to doee used to calculate the residual velocity of fragments produced by a buried munition and the maximum ejecta radius of large soil chunks produced by the buried explosion. The theory used in the development of the BEM software will be discussed. The burial depths determined using BEM are approximately twice the required thickness of sandbags from the sandbag tests.

If the energy release is relatively close to the surface, the cavity or void vents to the atmosphere and a crater is formed. Average soil properties are used for each of these 112268 types. These radii are shown in Figure 5.

BlastX Analysis | Safety Management Services, Inc.

The line shown in this figure has been specified by an equation and this equation has been included in BEM. Soil from the crater is also thrown tjc from the center of the explosion becoming hazardous. This software is described in the following sections. The results from these tests are compared deo the results from BEM in Table 3. Preliminary calculations for a variety of munitions show that tci a distance of one foot from the center of the explosion, the fragment velocity is approximately twice that of the soil particles.

The distances that these soil fragments travel are called the maximum ejecta radii. A standard fragment is assumed. The hazards to personnel and public that are of the most concern are overpressure and noise and fragmentation.

Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. The software will be outlined and an example presented. In most cases the explosion causes a crater.

Box Huntsville, AL Telephone: The Structural Branch has developed software to simplify and standardize the calculations to determine the withdrawal distance due to fragmentation and soil ejecta due to the detonation of a buried munition.

A munition is placed on its side on the ground surface and sandbags dod placed around all four sides and the top of the munition with a 6- inch standoff from the munition. Comparison with the sandbag test results and consideration of some of the differences between the physical parameters of the tests and this analytical method indicates that this method generally produces conservative results.


In this case, the ordnance must be destroyed in place. The pre-defined list of soils include dry sand, wet sand, dry sandy clay, wet sandy clay, dry clay, and wet clay.

If X is greater than Y, a camouflet will be formed. Some typical soil data from TM are shown in Table 2. However, where a crater is formed a burial depth may be found where the fragment range will be less than the soil ejecta range.

Stochastic Consideration of Cased Munitions for Casing Breakup and Airblast |

Due to calculation restraints division by the depth of burialif the depth of burial is zero the software assumes a depth of burial of 0. However, if the munition is buried deeply enough a camouflet is formed instead and no soil is ejected from the site. In order to protect the disposal personnel as well as the public, a withdrawal distance from the detonation is enforced.

Sandbag throw is also measured. Tc is involved in a test program to determine the thickness of sandbags necessary to defeat the primary fragments from a munition detonated on the ground surface. The question becomes how much soil does the fragment have to penetrate before escaping and what is the density of this soil? The munition is detonated using a perforating shaped charge.

If the tuc release is sufficiently deep below the surface a void, called a camouflet, is formed. However, it is not clear at this time for which portion of the burial depth this is true. Examination of the original soil ejecta data from AFWL-TR [5] shows that the average ratio between the maximum soil ejecta range and the range of one hazardous ejecta per square feet is 1.

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