Cranio-Vertebral AnomaliesDR. ANKUR NANDAN VARSHNEY IMS, BHU Varanasi. Cranio vertebral anomalies- overview -. 1. DR. SUMIT KAMBLE SENIOR RESIDENT DEPT. OF NEUROLOGY GMC, KOTA; 2. ANATOMY OF. The craniovertebral junction is the most complex of the axial skeleton, residing between the skull and the upper cervical spine. Congenital, developmental, and .

Author: Arakinos Shaktimi
Country: Indonesia
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Art
Published (Last): 17 August 2016
Pages: 246
PDF File Size: 3.6 Mb
ePub File Size: 12.30 Mb
ISBN: 497-2-59566-164-6
Downloads: 64989
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Voodoomuro

Department of Neurosurgery, Seth G.

How to cite this URL: It is frequent in Klippel-feil syndrome, involving anomaalies second and the third vertebral bodies and may affect the atlanto axial joint. Such deformities cause only a neck tilt and pain without neuro deficit. Many children have URI preceding the onset of symptoms. A report of an experience with 24 cases. Mesenchymal cells of the fissure condense to form I.

Clinical science The craniovertebral junction CVJ is composed of the occiput, the anomaliss magnumand the first two cervical vertebrae, encompassing the medulla oblongata and the upper cervical spinal cord. Twenty-two patients had previous posterior decompression and 27 had previous syrinx to subarachnoid shunt with delayed deterioration.

All these methods are effective when reduction of dislocation is adequate. The axis has a fully developed center from the second sclerotome which form the caudal part of the body and articular facets.

Basic anatomy The CVJ is composed of the occiput, the foramen magnumand the first two cervical vertebrae the atlas, and the axis. Careful exam reveals a small hypoplastic odontoid at the upper border of the body of the axis. Prevalence appears to be high as observed by neurosurgeons in India although it is yet to be corroborated by epidemiological studies. Majority of patients present in their second or third decade.


Ideal will be the Halo frame. Craniovertebral realignment for basilar invagination and atlantoaxial dislocation secondary to rheumatoid arthritis. The anterior type has a short clivus horizontally placed, with the anterior lip of the foramen magnum invaginated in relation to the spinal column. This apical segment is usually about 12mm in length, but can be very small.

It is a complex process. Br J Neurosurg ;9: The craniovertebral junction CVJ is composed of the occiput, the foramen magnumand the first two cervical vertebrae, encompassing the medulla oblongata and the upper cervical spinal cord.

Craniovertebral junction anomalies – Knowledge for medical students and physicians

It encompasses and protects the medulla oblongata and the upper cervical spinal cord. Abnormal occipto atlantal ligament. Surgery is often indicated to prevent or treat neurological symptoms. Correlation of anatomic and neurologic findings.

Craniovertebral anomalies.

Symptomatic in infancy Breathing difficulties, including apneic episodes Feeding difficulties Always associated with myelomeningocele Features of syringomyelia or hydrocephalusif present. Certain terms are conventionally used to express the anomalies, as follows 1. Evidence of high cervical cord compression with aanomalies without sensory involvement is common.

The C-V junction is a transition site between mobile cranium and relatively anomalie spinal column. Mesodermal somites numbering 42 appear at the 4th week Ventromedial part of the somatomes migrate and cluster around notochord- Sclerotomes A fissure in each sclerotome separate a denser caudal half from loosely arranged cranial half.

High arched palate, hemiatrophy of tongue, and syndactyly may be associated. Rarely there is vertebral art.

There is male preponderance 1: J Postgrad Med ; Down’s syndrome lax joints. Out of 4 occipital sclerotomes the first 2 form basiocciputthe III Jugular tubercles and the IV Proatlas form parts of foramen magnum, atlas and axis. It occurs in 0. Encroachment into the spinal canal may also occur due to formation of cranioverteebral abnormal bone masses around the CV junction. Atlantoaxial fixation using plate and screw method: Goel A, Achawal S. The odontoid base fails to fuse with the axis.


Assimilation of atlas with the occiput is an expression of nonsegmentation of certain parts of the proatlas and fusion of the first spinal sclerotome with the proatlas.

Craniovertebral anomalies.

Some feel a stabilization procedure is not required in selected cases. Symptoms of lower brain stem dysfunction, such as dysphagia, dysphonia, nasal regurgitation, sleep apnoea are due to basilar invagination. Articles Current Issue Ahead of print Archive. Segmentation falilure of Anomaliez Goel A, Sharma P. Refers to the nonfused terminal part of the odontoid derived from the centrum of the IV occipital sclerotome. J Neurosurg Spine in press. Malformation of axis Irregular atlantoaxial segmentation Dens dysplasias Ossiculum terminale persistence Osodontoideum Segmentation falilure of C Neural dysgenesis.

Remnants around foramen magnum. Fatal meningitis, post operative dislocation are possible complications. Irreducible types require open reduction operative reduction. In course of time the ligaments become lax and mobility increases predisposing to atlanto axial dislocation.

Features of type I CM In addition, caudal displacement of a beaked dorsal midbrainand possibly the fourth ventricle. Oppel was probably the anoomalies to operate by ant.