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Power system security and ancillary services Power system security will be understood here as the ability of the power system to withstand plausible contingencies without interruption of customer service [2]. Finally, the key element of this research line is the choice of a suitable set of enhanced constraints for the FCUC problem.

UC cost minimisation vs. This is the case of basic” voltage control in Europe and USA [13], while other services are now traded in dedicated markets, depending on the system. Thus, the implementation of a numeric integration method becomes inevitable to achieve a differentiated representation of individual units contributions to the primary frequency regulation.

Among others, this transformation implied important changes on the way ancillary services were provided. Therefore, this representation was considered to provide a good trade-off between accuracy and computational complexity. For example, the impact of the hourly variability and increased uncertainty is the focus of several works [33, 34, 35, 36], and some trend can nowadays be identified: It is verified that the behaviour of the frequency nadir regarding the binary decision variables is hard to approximate by analytical functions.

Although an exhaustive state of the art on this topic is beyond the scope of this work, it should be noted that some issues received more attention than others. In a vertically integrated structure, the utility, responsible for the system security, owned the means to ensure it, i.

Therefore, analytical expressions can be derived for the frequency and time domain response of the frequency, as well as for many essential metrics of the frequency transient, such as its minimum value nadir and the time when it happens.


This is the reason why they have been disregarded at this point. Then, the frequency trajectory may be characterised by at least four metrics. Research on assevissement topic has followed two main approaches. Appendix Xsservissement describes the test system and the characteristics of the different RES scenarios considered in the case studies.

Reserve requirements are traditionally specified following a static reliability criterion, usually given by a reference incident, such as the loss of the biggest unit or the largest power input. Frequency evolution following the outage of unit 1 For an equivalent power imbalance, the primary asservissemen regulation exhibited a better performance on the week day, since more regulating units were committed.

Then, the primary frequency control automatically and locally increases the power output of the units designated to provide this service, until the power balance is regained and the system frequency is stabilised.

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Indeed, the most widespread way of dealing with MILP problems consists in removing the constraints containing integer variables and solving the remaining continuous linear program LP.

Different cost coefficients may be then defined: In this context, one challenge consists of proposing suitable solutions for raising this technical limit and further integrate RES generation, while ensuring the proper functioning of the primary frequency control. These results support the preliminary conclusion provided in section 2.

In order to avoid this, scenario reduction techniques for stochastic scenarios have been proposed [,]. The initial frequency gradient increased from 0. The main reason for this choice is related to the computational tractability of the UC problem.

Afterwards, dynamic simulations are performed for every conceivable outage in order to quantify the risk of UFLS.

The model of the primary frequency regulation of a unit j is depicted in figure 2. Therefore, a first feasible solution, in term of the frequency constraints, can be easily obtained for fixed commitment decisions. Therefore, some works have been published on building ROSFR to determine the average frequency trajectory [, ], which are based on couds 1.

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Formulation of classic models to study the primary frequency response 39 Xsservissement illustrative purposes, figure 2. Provision of dynamic support by dedicated facilities, such as centralised storage systems pumped-storage [66], batteries [68], flywheel [77], etc. From a operational point of view, the main challenge appears at high V-RES instantaneous penetration rates, since traditional flexibility sources are no longer available and there are limited providers of the ancillary services.


The generation and load upsets are aggregated in a variable called disturbance power P d in order to obtain the expression of the primary frequency response. Introduction 3 Active power reserves Spinning reserve is defined here as the difference between the power ratings of all the operating units and the actual load plus losses [5].

In this context, the simplest way of maintaining the performance of the frequency regulation is to contractually oblige specific GENCOs to accept a control signal as if they were owned by the system operator [4]. In practice, UC decision may be modified during the day following the realization of a certain uncertainty e. Historically, for a conventional generation mix, this security constraint allowed one to obtain UC solutions that naturally provided an acceptable transient response.

The initial gradient of this drop is limited by the inertia of the on-line synchronous generators. This is the reason why FCUC models are generally based on indirect constraints over certain dynamic parameters of the generating units, which in addition preserve the MILP structure of the optimisation problem.

Nevertheless, some methodological aspects of those studies are highlighted below as they inspire the simulation approach proposed here. More information can be found on Sections discusses the two axservissement drivers of recent power system evolution: The abscissa represents the hourly time steps, and the ordinate indicates the unit ID number.

In practice, the rotating speed of each unit may be different, but solving a detailed dynamic model may be computationally expensive. Literature on this topic is extensive, specially considering wind power, and it covers a wide range of time scales. Fours, the implemented model accounts for saturation of the control signal due to capacity limits.

Some recent works may be cited here for illustrative purposes: The computational time of the presented two instance of the UC problem week day and weekend were 1 minute and 35 seconds respectively when using model M 0.