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The nature of the bone finds has sometimes been questioned – the animals might in theory have drowned out of natural causes in front of the cliff. On the contrary, much of the amateur work has been characterised by a high level of scholarly ambition joski dedication to the subject.

Full text of “Encyclopedia Of Religious Rites, Rituals And (PDFy mirror)”

Contrary to the rock arts of neighbouring Sweden, Norway and Russian Karelia, Finnish rock art consists solely of rock paintings. A comparison of competing hypotheses in interpreting Finnish rock art. Sometimes the pictures appear to have been shot at: And indeed, the role of elk in Finnish-Karelian pre-Christian myth and religion is much more pronounced than among the Saami see e. Following that, the painting tradition begins to decline and seems to end around BC or the beginning of the Early Metal Period.

Some of the factors possibly affecting the location of Finnish rock paintings from Lahelma Although the ethnographic sources include few explicit references to rock art a few possible cases were discussed in Paper IVthe religious imagery of historical sources and rock art are so closely paralleled, and the cults of the sieidi and of the painted rocks so similar, that an ethnographically informed approach to interpretation is here considered valid.

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For example, in the painting at Halsvuori Miettinenwe see two human figures, both of them carrying some smallish mammal beaver or squirrel?

However, given the overall homogeneity of the art, the main reason for producing rock art is likely to have been uniform. Finskt Museum 80, Apart from size, some anthropomorphs have other special features that indicate a special category of human figure. Although there is not much concrete evidence for it, the possibility that some of them were painted during the Mesolithic or the Iron Age or even the historical period thus cannot be ruled out.

Not all handprints are preserved well enough to ascertain whether the right or left hand cnris used.

Seitsonen divides the Lake Saimaa paintings into five horizons that follow each other at year intervals, with horizon I beginning around and horizon V ending around calBC Seitsonen a: It is also common that the reports do not include any tracings of the paintings, only a verbal description and accompanying photographs. All 14C-dates in this essay were calibrated using the OxCal v. Only a few sites show snakes that appear anatomically accurate, but it seems apparent that zigzag-lines were used to represent snakes because snakes and zigzag-lines occur in analogous scenes with human figures.

No evidence of special headgear has been found so far, however. Sivination shamanistic interpretation, as proposed by the anthropologist Anna-Leena Siikalawas based mainly on ethnographic analogies drawn from the nomadic cultures of the circumpolar north.

Available in the Internet at: To begin with, some paintings show animals that are clearly Figure In the conclusion to his Licentiate thesis on the subject, the historian of religion, Janne Saavalainen If these are actually representations of lizards, then the species depicted must be Zootoca vivipara Finn.

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The Archaeology of Shamanism, To be published in a Festschrift for archaeologist V.

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Recent rock painting finds in Finland. I chose to count only those images that are clear and distinct to me, resulting in numbers that are somewhat lower than those reached by other scholars. This is one of the most difficult questions related to Finnish rock art. The same kind of ambiguity, and similar fantastic creatures, can be found also in the rock art of northern Sweden Bolin The colour of the paint ranges from dark brown to bright red, orange and even yellow, but the different hues do not appear to have been used to create shading or other artistic effects.

When the Ice Age ended and the Fennoscandian landmass became ice-free, it began to slowly rise again — a phenomenon known as isostatic land uplift. Figures from Finnish rock paintings: Prehistoric reasons may have been entirely different cf.

Shoreline datings are rough approximates which, moreover, are riddled with uncertainties.

This is not to say that the development has been negative. The first inhabitants of the southern and Figure Savonlinna Pellossalo Porossalmi Hepokallio. Saimaan alueen kalliomaalausten kuva-aiheet ja kronologia rannansiirtymisen perusteella.

The second part of this introduction brings together the main results of my dissertation with regard to interpretation.