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This was the chief cause of the very serious reverse which befel their arms. A few chsrles may he given to show the uncertainty on these cjarles which is such a feature of small wars. He was also a noted writer of military biography, history, and theory. Their purpose is to ensure a lasting peace. A place called Chikislar, in somewhat unhealthy surroundings near the southern end of the sea, was made the base, and there elaborate preparations of all kinds was made for the campaign.

This was the case in Egypt into a certain extent in Tonkin as far as the Chinese were concerned, and also in a measure in the Indian Mutiny.

In the campaign against the Hunza-Xagar tribes north of Kashmir inthe British force was, after the storming of the fort of Nilt, brought to a standstill for several days by a formidable line caplwell defence works covering an extensive mountain position of great natural strength. Therefore a mere fraction of the expeditionary force was pushed to the front and bore the brunt of the Calwlell attacks, while the bulk of it remained idle wwrs Ismailia and was only moved forward when sufficient food had been collected for it to operate with rapidity and decision.

Suffice it to say here that when the plan is adopted of propagating misleading intelligence as to prospective operations, the enemy generally falls into the trap readily enough.

Flank attacks give better chance of decisive victory. The invaders went to work with marked deliberation. Visitors to the country came away wwrs the idea that the Queen’s army was a fairly efficient smalp which would give a good account of itself under the circumstances. The French expedition despatched to effect the capture of the Madagascar capital and the subjugation of the Hovas inis a good illustration of the unfortunate consequences of defective information as to a theatre of prospective war.

In an insurrection this is indeed generally the case – it was so in the Charle Mutiny. Hoche, whose conduct of the campaign against the Chouans and insurgents from La Vendee will ever remain a model of operations of this kind, achieved success as much by his happy combination of clemency with firmness, as by his masterly dispositions in the theatre of war. On the Continent of Europe where roads, railways, and canals chsrles abound, where the districts which may at some future period become scenes of war can be foreseen in times of peace, and where contending armies can live largely if not wholly upon the country they traverse, an organized supply service comes into existence as armies change from the peace to the war footing.


The camel corps had been organized with the possibility of this contingency in view, although the original plan of campaign had been that the whole force should move by river. cal,well

The fighting forces of the Arabs, Moors, and Tartars have always largely consisted of irregular cavalry, and the regular troops campaigning in these countries have been exposed to sudden onslaught by great hordes of mounted men. Fortified posts and depots. The Indian Mutiny furnishes the ever memorable case of Cawnpore, and in the campaigns against the Red Indians the United States troops had constantly to be on the watch against hostile perfidy. When the stricken remnant reached water the supply train had been lost and there was no food left, so the force had vharles march back 50 miles to its original starting point, where it arrived in piteous plight.

Certain rules of conduct exist which are universally accepted. He recognised that the campaign he was undertaking hinged upon supply, and with this constantly in view, everything was arranged for deliberately and in advance. Rolling stock, which it was foreseen would be required on the railway from Ismailia to the Nile Delta, was embarked at Alexandria on the pretence of charle sent to Cyprus.

Small Wars Their Principles And Practice

On the other hand the strategical problems presented by operations of this nature have not altered to at all the same extent. The main points of difference between small wars and regular campaigns in this respect are that, in the former, the beating of the hostile armies is calwlell necessarily the main object even if such armies exist, that moral effect is often far more important than material success, and that the operations are sometimes limited to committing havoc which the laws of regular warfare do not sanction.

The guides were treacherous. This all-important question of. The operations on the North-West Frontier of India in afford admirable examples of another form of guerilla warfare that against the well armed fanatical cut-throat of the hills, lighting in a terrain peculiarly well adapted to his method of making war. So great indeed are the difficulties that arise in many small wars from supply, that it becomes necessary to cut down the forces engaged to the lowest possible strength consistent with safety, and that campaigns have to be embarked upon with armies barely capable numerically of performing the work which they may have in hand.

It ca,lwell be noted that campaigns of conquest, and annexation not infrequently pass through two distinct stages.

In previous campaigns, moreover, the Malagasies had given the French a good deal of trouble. Picquets covering each others retirements.

U of Nebraska Press- History – pages. The River Column, starting xallwell Hamdab beyond Korti carried with it days’ supplies, which was believed to be sufficient to take it to Berber. It was also that Afrikaner nationalism, embodied in the two Boer republics, the Transvaal and the Orange Free State, gave to the farmers of the veldt an identity, a social cohesion, and a politico-military organisation that were thoroughly modern.

The whole course of operations has been largely influenced by this fact. Nothing more tends to hinder the framing of a decisive and assured plan of campaign and cgarles delay the execution of the plan when it has been resolved upon, than this feeling of doubt, the fear that something unexpected will mar the combination and upset the calculations upon which it was based.


This Nile Expedition has been frequently referred to throughout this chapter. Time was throughout of the most momentous importance. In some callqell they do not hold good at all. For it is perhaps the most distinguishing characteristic of small wars as compared with regular hostilities conducted between modern armies, that they are in the main campaigns against nature. Moreover, the worse the route is, the slower does the transport move.

The intelligence department finds great difficulty in organising an efficient service of espionage for obvious reasons – the spy captured clalwell civilized troops does not have a very good time, in the hands of barbarians his lot is even more unenviable. But that this difficulty is one which can be overcome has often been proved in actual campaigns, and notably in chxrles remarkable set of operations which carried the Anglo-Egyptian troops by successive stages from Wadi Halfa to Omdurman in the yearsand which afford a signal illustration of what can be achieved by a thoroughly efficient intelligence department.

The difficulty of dealing with Orientals and dars, whether as informers or spies, is referred to in many textbooks and works of reference on reconnaissance and intelligence duties.

Charles Edward Callwell – Wikipedia

At the outbreak of hostilities between the British and the Boers inthe prevailing opinion in Natal, and in South Africa generally, was that the Boers would fight with little spirit and would easily lie dispersed by the slender force under Sir G. Dars it had this peculiarity – it was a campaign not only against nature but also against time, because it was undertaken to relieve a beleaguered city.

For a given force proceeding caklwell given distance at a given rate, the amount that will be required is a question of figures, and, in a theatre of war possessing good communication, problems of this land can be worked out with considerable probability of the results arrived at in practice corresponding to those arrived at in theory.

The army performed its task of penetrating into Tirah, and of leaving its mark in the usual manner by the demolition of buildings and destruction of crops. In such struggles the enemy follows as far as he is able the system adopted in regular warfare.

Callwel is a most serious thing if an operation has been undertaken in the belief that supplies will be found in a certain locality and if this belief is, when too late, discovered to be unfounded.