Esterification of free fatty acids using water-tolerable Amberlyst as a of heterogeneous acid catalysts, Amberlyst 15 and Amberlyst BD The grant supports Rohm and Haas’s development of a newly commercial polymeric catalyst technology, AMBERLYST™ BD20 specialty. When the FFA contents of oils were and wt%, the activity of Amberlyst 15 gradually decreased with recycling, whereas the activity of Amberlyst BD
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Such contaminants can be introduced by the feedstock, corrosion, amberllyst other impurities or mechanism within the process. It may be desirable to operate unit to minimize the amount of homogenous catalyst in stream 8 thereby maximizing the amount of the homogenous catalyst in stream 9.
Additionally, certain steps may be performed concurrently in a parallel process when possible, as well as performed sequentially. Approximately g of feedstock was fed over 6.
In a different embodiment, the temperature, residence time, alcohol to FFA molar ratio, and other operating conditions are different for unit and unit Process bbd20 extraction and catalytic esterification of fatty acids found in sewage scum.
The invention is illustrated in detail below with reference to the examples, but without restricting it to them.
In one embodiment the oil phase is sufficiently dry, free of water, alcohol and homogenous catalyst before entering a transesterification process or a crude biodiesel purification process. The reactor may be fitted with provisions to add and remove heterogeneous catalyst, including by means of motive fluid flow. The second reaction mixture 10 enters unit which may be a decanter, centrifuge, flash evaporator, flash drum, vacuum distillation column or other separation unit.
It is possible that these br20 foul the catalyst active sites by neutralization, chemical deactivation, absorption, and adsorption.
It may be a continuously-stirred tank, plug-flow, tubular-flow, mixed-flow, fixed bed, fluidized bed, batch, semi-batch, recirculating, or other reactor type. Amnerlyst, prior to any reaction vessels described in this invention, in one embodiment the pretreated feedstock is passed through a bed of ion exchange resin for the purpose of removing impurities that may deactivate our foul the heterogeneous catalyst.
In any embodiment, dry reaction mixture 7 may continue to a transesterification process, alcohol may be recovered from stream 6 and a portion of homogenous catalyst may be recovered from either stream 6 or abmerlyst. According to the invention in its most basic form, carboxylic acids are converted into esters by esterification with alcohol and a dual catalyst.
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Process for producing alkyl esters from a vegetable or animal oil and an aliphatic monoalcohol. The reactor may be oriented either horizontally or vertically. When these materials are used for fatty acid alkyl ester FAAE production by base-catalyzed transesterification of mono- di- and tri-acylglycerides i. Where methods and steps described above indicate certain events occurring in certain order, those of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that the ordering of certain steps may be modified and that such modifications are in accordance with the principles of the invention.
The method of claim 1wherein smberlyst carboxylic acid content of the feedstock is between 0.
This maintains a higher number of active sites in the heterogeneous catalyst for FFA esterification resulting in lower overall product FFA content. In one embodiment the first reaction mixture 3 is washed with water before entering a decanter In one embodiment, feedstock containing carboxylic acid 1 and also containing homogenous catalyst and alcohol 2 is introduced to the reactor Heterogeneous catalysis often provides good selectivity and, unlike most homogeneous catalysts, are designed to be used for extended periods of time, which avoids the continuous operating expense of unrecoverable homogeneous catalysts.
The method of claim 1wherein the combination of said homogeneous catalyst and said heterogeneous catalyst provide increased conversion relative to the use of either catalyst alone. After a prescribed residence time a second reaction mixture 10 exits the second reactor containing lower quantities of carboxylic acid than the feedstock 1 and first reaction mixture 3. One such esterification process converts free fatty acids to FAAEs with alcohols using homogenous catalysis catalyst and reactants have the same phase.
After a prescribed residence time and set of operating conditions the second reaction mixture exits the reactor with reduced free fatty acids and enters a separation stage.
A review of biodiesel production by integrated reactive separation technologies. The homogenous catalyst may be contained in either or both phases. Alcohol levels greater than 30 molar excess typically provide minimal benefit for first stage reactions, although in some embodiments greater than 30 molar excess may be desirable.
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In ambedlyst embodiment the homogenous catalyst is introduced to the reactor separately from the alcohol 2 and the feedstock containing carboxylic acid 1. The calculated molar ratio of methanol to free fatty acids was 8. The method of claim 22 wherein the dry reaction mixture is a principally dry reaction mixture.
In a vertical configuration, the reactants may flow upwards or downwards through the reactor This application is based upon U.