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The equivalence of this GCD definition with the other definitions is described below.

This GCD definition led to the modern abstract algebraic concepts of a principal ideal an ideal generated by a single element and a principal ideal domain a domain in which every ideal is a principal ideal.

The Euclidean algorithm calculates the greatest common eucoid GCD of two natural numbers a and b. No natural number other than 1 divides both 6 and 35, since they have no prime factors in common.

In other words, the set of all possible sums of integer multiples of two numbers a and b is equivalent to the set of multiples of gcd ab. The American Mathematical Monthly. This extension adds two recursive equations to Euclid’s algorithm [58].

Finding multiplicative inverses is an essential step in the RSA algorithmwhich is widely used in electronic commerce ; specifically, ekclid equation determines the integer used to decrypt the message.

Then a is the next remainder r k. Theory of Algebraic Integers. Italics indicate that algorithm is for numbers of special forms. Theory of Numbers 2nd ed.

A History of Mathematics 2nd ed. Retrieved 1 November The first known analysis of Euclid’s algorithm is due to A. The average number of steps taken by the Euclidean algorithm has been defined in three different ways.


Thus, any other number c that divides both a and b must also divide g. Euclidean division reduces all the steps between two exchanges into a single step, which is thus more efficient.

Certain problems can be solved using this result. Euclid’s lemma suffices to prove that every number has a unique factorization into prime numbers.

Several novel integer relation algorithms have been developed, such as the algorithm of Helaman Ferguson and R. The result is a continued fraction.

The GCD is said to be the generator of the ideal of a and b. In tabular form, the steps are.

Euclidean algorithm

These quasilinear methods generally scale as O h log h 2 log log h. Then multiples of are subtracted from until the remainder is less than InCole and Davie developed a two-player game based on the Euclidean algorithm, called The Game of Euclid[49] which has an optimal strategy. It is an example of an algorithma step-by-step procedure for performing a calculation according to well-defined rules, and is one of the oldest algorithms in common use.

Thus, the algorithm can be written as a sequence of equations. Substituting the approximate formula for T a into this equation yields an estimate for Y n [].

Euclidean algorithm – Wikipedia

A smaller common divisor cannot be a member of the set, since every member of the set must be divisible by g. By reversing the stepsthe GCD can be expressed as a,goritma sum of the two original numbers each multiplied by a positive or negative integere. Finally, the coefficients of the polynomials need not be drawn from integers, real numbers or even the complex numbers. For example, the unique factorization of the Gaussian integers is convenient in deriving formulae for all Pythagorean triples and in proving Fermat’s theorem on sums of two squares.


During the loop iteration, a is reduced by multiples of the previous remainder b until a is smaller than b. The Mathematics alggoritma Plato’s Academy: The goal of the algorithm is to identify a real number g such that two given real numbers, a and bare integer multiples of it: One inefficient approach to finding the GCD of two natural numbers a and b is to calculate all their common divisors; the GCD is then the largest common divisor.

The Design and Analysis of Computer Algorithms. By definition, a and b can be written as multiples of c: The set of all integral linear combinations of a and b is actually the same as the set of all multiples of g mgwhere m is an integer.