Ahmad Ibn Fadlan chronicled the voyage of an embassy sent from Ibn Fadlan’s Risalah is considered the only extant firsthand account of the. Ahmad Ibn Fadlan met with the Vikings in Volga Bulgaria. His chronicle called Risala includes detailed information and observations about them. The travel. But perhaps the most memorable passages in the Risala, his account of his journeys, concern the Varangians, In , the Arab traveler Ahmad ibn Fadlan (fl.

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The ornaments they prize the most are the dark-green ceramic beads they have on their boats: He also describes religious and other practices, such as fsdlan burning of a dead lord on a boat, and alongside him his female slaves. The Allah is above what say the impious, in height and greatness.

They then brought two mounts, and drove them until they were sweating, cut them with swords into farlan and threw the flesh onto the ship. If he will order his troops to raid a country, and they would bring booty, he has together with them his share. Also they brought bread, meat and onions, which they threw in front of him, and a dog, which they cut in two and threw onto the ship, and all of his weaponry, which they placed beside him.

It should be reminded here that the point of view of the author regarding hygiene depends pretty much on Islamic teachings in which daily routines of ablution and gadlan after certain actions are necessary. And from the Bulgar to the nearest border of Byzantium amad about ten marches, and from it to the Kuyabthe city of Ruses, twenty days, and from the Bulgar to the Bashdjird twenty five marches.

And he Ibn-Fadlan said: And if injustice fells on one of them or happens something unpleasant, he lifts his face to the sky and says: Each woman wears on either breast a box of ironsilvercopperor gold ; the value of the box indicates the wealth of the husband. I asked the interpreter about her actions and he said, “The first time they lifted her, she said, ‘I see my father and my mother. When he was driven to resignation about it; he gave an order to the muezzin to proclaim ikama twice, and he did it.


Even before my arrival for him at his minbar was already being proclaimed a hutba: Rather, his focus is on a group of people he met during his time among the Bulgars, a strange blond-haired and blue-eyed race who had settled in the region, and with whom the Bulgars traded.

In the a Danish orientalist R. The oldest catalogue of the Meshkhed library, compiled under direction of Mutavalli-bashy mirza Muhammad Husein Afzud-al-Mulk, who in was an envoy of Persia to Petersburg. Bukhara lay well to the east and south of their destination, however, and at Gurgan near the Caspian Sea in what is now northeastern Iran, they began heading northward on March 4, He washes his hands and his face and his hair in the water, then he dips his comb in the water and brushes his hair, blows his nose and spits in the washbowl, does not leave anything dirty but casts it all in the water.

The Travels of Ibn Fadlan | Muslim Heritage

He was not of the inhabitants of this country and even not from people. This is what the regime did with the science and scientists, even with the academicians, even with the authoritative academic publications. They do not do anything with water, especially in the winter.

Then he again wanted to move and sent to the people called Savan i. We stayed in an-Nihravan one day and further went strenuously, until we reached ad-Daskara. Thus, Ibn Fadlan himself narrates a conversation highlighting the main difference regarding this specific issue:.

Then he said muedzinu: All Turks pluck out their beards, except for moustaches. I was stunned by that, gave a glorification to Allah and asked for the pardon. So, he went astride with me to a large forest with huge trees.

Perception of the Vikings from Ibn Fadlan’s glance in al-Risala

In academician Kh. And really, at the malik I saw three big bowls, similar to the Yemen shells “jaz”, he told me that they bowls are made from the base of the horn of this animal.

No merchant or some one else can make ablution after uncleanness in their presence, but only at night when they do not see him. The muezzin, calling for a pray, proclaimed ikama to him twice. The bigger part of the records are extracts of a number of articles mainly about the districts of Persia adjoining the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. As a growing number of scholars have observed, there seemed to be a political agreement between the Bulghar king and the Abbasid caliph.


I stopped, looking at it and then it started to move, and it frightened me.

Ahmmad was riding next to me, and next him was a man from the Turks, who talked to him in Turkish. Ahmac also removed two anklets she was wearing, handing them to the two slave-girls who waited upon her: For instance, he wrote that the Vikings all washed riasla a common bowl, and that it was typical for them to blow their noses and spit into the same basin in which they would wash their hands and faces.

Some of them say that he has twelve Gods: Sometimes many of them come together for this, each in front of the other. They have a lot of merchants who journey to the land of the Turks, and bring sheep, and to the country called Visu, and bring sables and black foxes.

The journey and the description of the various tribes encountered by the embassy are vividly described by Ibn Fadlan.

Retrieved from ” https: Retrieved December 29, from Encyclopedia. And this river rose, and its water overflowed its banks. When they have come from their land and anchored on, or ties up at the shore of the Volga, which is a great river, they build big houses of wood on the shore, each holding ten to twenty persons more or less In the manuscript are very interesting variations to Ibn-Fadlan.

When I ended, his followers showered on him malik numerous dirhams. And what he Caliph had the reason for sending these riches to him, it was for the construction about which we already informed, and for the payment for the fakihs and mu’allims for the village known under name Artahushmatin in the Khoresm land, from among the villages of Ibn-al-Furat.

Also the river Djayhun from the beginning to its end has frozen, and there was a thickness of ice seventeen quartersand horses and mules and camels and carriages pass on it as if on the roads, and it was firm and did not shake.