Psychological Reactance. A Theory of Freedom and Control. Book • Authors: Sharon S. Brehm and Jack W. Brehm. Browse book content. About the book. Advances in Consumer Research Volume 16, Pages PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTANCE: THEORY AND APPLICATIONS. Jack W. Brehm, University. Abstract. Since Brehm first proposed reactance theory in , many studies have explored the remarkable psychological phenomenon of reactance, which.

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Unpublished Manuscript, University of Salzburg, Austria. Two factors determining the nrehm to restrictions are the absoluteness of a restriction and self-relevance. Rethinking the value of choice: And let us now ask why it should make any difference if there are implied threats to a few freedoms. Thus, they are highly threatened by decisions coming from the ingroup.

Jack Williams Brehm, A Theory of Psychological Reactance – PhilPapers

Furthermore, people with a more independent self-construal or an individualistic cultural background indicated stronger reactance when restricted themselves rather than being vicariously restricted Sittenthaler, Traut-Mattausch, et al. Freedom threats are probably common in many social interactions. Helpless individuals usually do not feel capable of changing an unpleasant situation.

Free Will and Determinism: Communication Research Reports, — Marital partners may perceive threats to their freedoms from their spouses.

This illuminates that reactance is motivational in nature. Or at least I don’t think you would like that, even if you intended to geactance a Coke when you started to put your quarters in the machine.

When a specific freedom has been threatened or eliminated, as when your spouse announces “I need the car tonight,” at least two distinguishable types of implication are possible in regard to other freedoms. Both effects, rationalization and reactance, were strongest if the restriction was self-relevant.


An interpersonal interpretation of the need for freedom. It seems to be captured in the phrase, “If he does this to me, what can’t he do? Validation of a scale measuring state reactance. Conversion of reactance motives into effortful goal pursuit: You may be sure that I will not buy a house brand soft drink from this store. Free will and determinism. Philosophical Transactions of throry Royal Society of London.

psychologica Cognition and Emotion, 1— Psychological reactance and persuasive health communication: Without doubt many implicational principles are culture bound, but it would be my contention that the general principle of logical or psychological implication always operates.

The neural basis of mentalizing.

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Since Brehm psychologicaal proposed reactance theory inmany studies have explored the remarkable psychological phenomenon of reactance, which Miron and Brehm reviewed in While an implicit activation of the stereotype that men are better in negotiating led to lower performance in women, an explicit activation led to higher performance in women.

So far, affect and cognition seem to be central elements if we want to understand the nature of reactance processes. A fourth and final reason for thinking of freedoms as specific is that the magnitude of reactance can be specified as increasing directly with both the number and proportion of freedoms that are threatened or eliminated.


Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, reactancr Avoidance resulted in more counterarguing and less positive perceptions of the communicator and the change message. Priming Reactance As mentioned by Miron and Brehmpeople do not react only to obvious, direct threats.

Reactance theory — 40 years later.

But I know that I could venture forth, spending or for airfare, to obtain an interesting meal. For short messages, it has been found that the framing of the message as loss e. Why would a person sometimes dislike receiving a favor?

The intensity of motivation. I cannot say whether or not there may be limits on perceived implication.

Human Communication Researchbremh, 47— Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, — Again from the consumer’s point of view, two different kinds of decisions can be involved in considering the available goods and services. This psychhological be comparable to dual-process models and their distinction between more impulsive and more reflective processes of social behavior e.

And then there are all the freedoms represented by possible future use of the car–one freedom each night for the coming year, some freedoms threatened by implication! This finding led us to assume that different processes might be involved when people are confronted with different kinds of threats to their freedom.