Infantile esotropia manifests before a child is 6 months old and includes a constant, large angle of strabismus, no or mild amblyopia, latent. Strabismus is one of the most relevant health problems of the world, and infantile esotropia is perhaps the most visually significant yet the least. The term congenital esotropia is often used interchangeably with infantile esotropia, but few cases are actually noted at birth. Often the exact.

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It is important for the ophthalmologist to take time to discuss the condition with the parents or caretakers. The patient was born full term by normal spontaneous vaginal delivery without complications. Results of early alignment of congenital esotropia. Languages Italiano Edit links.

Thus far she is a healthy baby, growing and developing normally. Binocular Vision and Ocular Motility. The treatment of infantile esotropia is extraocular muscle surgery. Congenital lacrimal duct obstruction.

Recently, botulinum toxin has been used in select cases. Fortunately, accommodative esotropia can usually be treated with spectacles. In these patients, surgery is indicated to correct the remaining deviation. Many theories have been postulated regarding the pathogenesis of the disease. Note that the patient is looking slightly to the right Figure 3: Patients with esotropic Duane syndrome have limited abduction with small-angle esotropia in primary gaze, abnormal face turn, and incomitance.

Strabismus: Infantile Esotropia – American Academy of Ophthalmology

Various surgical approaches have been described for the management of congenital esotropia. DVD dissociated vertical deviationinferior oblique overaction, and latent nystagmus Symptoms Usually not noted immediately at birth but within 6 months of age May be secondary to underlying neurological or developmental issue, therefore important to do thorough history and examination Treatment Ocular alignment rarely achieved without surgery Best surgical outcomes when performed between 6 and 24 months Bilateral medial rectus recession Ipsilateral medial rectus recession and lateral rectus resection Surgical measurements should be made from the limbus If very large angle deviation, may need to do 3 or 4 horizontal muscle surgery References Nelson LB, Wagner RS, Simon JW, et al.


There are surgical and nonsurgical treatments available for exotropia. DVD is elevation of the non-fixing eye when covered or with visual inattention. There is presence of binocular peripheral fusion.

American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

For these patients, antiaccommodative therapy with spectacles is indicated before any surgery as antiaccommodative therapy fully corrects their esotropia in many cases and significantly decreases their deviation angle in others. Sensory esotropia Sensory esotropia can be seen in patients with poor invantil.

It is a predominantly horizontal jerk nystagmus elicited by occluding either endotorpia. Infantile Esotropia From EyeWiki. Most children with infantile esotropia demonstrate a deficit of depth perception when old enough to be tested reliably. Corrective lenses are often prescribed if the hyperopia is greater than 2.

Infantile Esotropia

Can ophthalmologists repair the brain in infantile esotropia? Professional Membership Log-In Fill in your username and password and select endotropiaa action. Esotropia is an inward turning of one or both eyes. Again, as the corneal reflections become similar, a quantifiable estimate is made. Monofixation syndrome Also known as microtropia, monofixation syndrome is normally seen in patients following strabismus surgery for infantile esotropia.


Binasal occlusion can be used to discourage cross-fixation. Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles Infantip with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles will frequently have poor ductions.

Infantile Esotropia — AAPOS

Optometry and Vision Science Review. Early surgical alignment for congenital esotropia.

Link to strabismus surgery entry. Infantile esotropia begins at birth or during the first year of life. Research done by Eileen Birch and David Stager showed that stereopsis emerges abruptly in the first few months of life but degenerates pathologically within a few months in uncorrected esotropes.

Dissociated deviations are seen in patients with decreased binocular vision. Changes in the functional binocular status of infzntil children and adults with previously untreated infantile esotropia following late surgical realignment.

Color Atlas Of Strabismus Surgery: The patient presented with a large angle esotropia noted within two months of life. When an infant looks with either eye an equal amount of time, the risk of amblyopia is less.

Traditionally, PAT is used enndotropia acquired ET to determine the surgical angle and estimate fusion potential. Practical Case Study Exercises. Identification of the proper deviation in infancy without evidence of cranial nerve palsies or systemic disease to explain the deviation. Patients with infantile esotropia are typically neurologically normal, have hyperopia less than 3.