In contrast, the Dissocubes® technology employs piston-gap homogenizers. The technology was developed by Müller and colleagues (, ) and later. DissoCubes are part of Nanosuspension preparation. In which piston–gap high- pressure homogenization occurs. The main advantages of this technology. Employing piston-gap homogenizers, Müller and coworkers developed the Dissocubes technology (now belonging to Skyepharma plc) and the.

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However, the processes benefited from different drug characteristics. Metal contamination due to the erosion is less pronounced in this technollogy than in media milling. However, the CT process leads to particle sizes that are relatively bigger compared to the other combinative technologies.

This is difficult when a nanosuspension is needed. The special features of this bottom-up technology are the production of crystalline drug nanoparticles and the ability for large-scale production [ 1213 ].

It combines a microprecipitation step involving organic technoligy, followed by high pressure homogenization for particle size reduction. It must be noted that the tablet size weight has to be acceptable for the patient and that a dosing with two tablets should be avoided for reasons of patient compliance and marketing.

It is available in two formulations, as oral suspensions and as a tablet. Acyclovir nanosuspensions have been produced by emulsion diffusion method [ 80 ]. Again, these particle size results were improved compared to the standard techniques employing untreated drug material.

All nanocrystals in the first four products were produced using the pearl mill technology by Elan Nanosystems. For FD purposes, it is important to employ organic solvents presenting relatively high freezing points. Angiotech Pharmaceuticals Inc, Vancouver, BC has developed an intravenous or systemic treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. A promising drug delivery strategy.


Nanosuspension: An approach to enhance solubility of drugs

Handbook of Industrial Crystallization; pp. PEG is commonly used to modify nanoparticle surface.

As with all precipitation methods, the challenge is to control the particle crystallization by avoiding crystal growth. Liang and co-workers prepared cloricromene nanosuspension for ocular delivery using Eudragit. Adopted from [ 44 ].

This technique can also be used to detect and quantify particle size ranges during the production procedure [ 5688 ]. Available marketed drugs in the form of nanosuspension with their route of administration. The complete removal of residues of organic solvents is necessary to ensure patient safety and product quality [ 4243 ].

Drug nanocrystals are crystals with a size in the nanometer range, which means they are nanoparticles with technologu crystalline character. Additionally, technolovy increase the efficacy of parenterally administered drugs.

This feature was confirmed by assessing the DC of the drug powders employing the DSC technique [ 42 ]. Surface modified drug nanoparticles. In most cases, rissocubes low dissolution velocity is correlated with low saturation solubility Figure 1.

Journal of Pharmaceutics

Carefully engineered nanoparticles surface can also effectively target the diseased tissue. A microprecipitation-sonication process under controlled temperature was chosen to produce nanoparticles of the drug to eventually improve its dissolution rate-dependent bioavailability. Microprecipitation method for preparing submicron suspensions.

Nitrendipine suffered no substantial crystallinity change after the process [ 33 ]. The emulsion is prepared by dispersing the drug loaded in a mixture of solvents or an organic solvent and forming emulsion with water by high pressure homogenisation or other techniques. In this manner, it is possible to reduce the energy input and the wearing of the machines [ 6 ].

Dissofubes are the sometimes long production times, eg, in pearl milling. Additional approaches are vesicular system like liposomes, dispersion of solids, emulsion and microemulsion methods, and inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins, which show beneficial effect as drug delivery system but major problems of these techniques are lack of universal applicability to all drugs.


When TH is administered to a stem cell graft, it enters and is retained in the cancerous cells and activated T cells, but not other normal cells dissocubbes as stem cells, progenitors and precursors.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev. This means dissocues contains a very low percentage of its total weight as nanocrystals.

Journal of Nanomaterials

Poorly water soluble molecules are typically formulated using tecchnology excipients with the aim of improving dissolution rate and storage stability. Nanopure technology for the production of drug nanocrystals and polymeric particles. Some examples of drugs produced by high pressure homogenization technique.

Extra drying steps need to be performed to eliminate the organic solvent content, which makes the process longer, more expensive, and more complicated regarding regulatory aspects [ 543 ].

Nanosuspension Technologies for Delivery of Poorly Soluble Drugs

This approach is called bottom-up, as the size of the particles is increased. Aprepitant augments the anti-emetic activity of the rechnology 3-receptor antagonist ondansetron and the corticosteroid dexamethasone and inhibits both the acute and delayed phases of cisplatin-induced emesis.

The main reasons for the increased dissolution velocity and thus increased bioavailability are:. The combined forces of cavitation, high shear, and collisions lead to fracture of the drug microparticles into nanosized particles [ 56 ]. The liquid flows come in contact, which results in the precipitation of the drug.